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Hodges that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage, legalizing it throughout the United States.

Aside from the legalization of same-sex marriage, there were seven significant legal victories for lesbians from the year until Hate Crimes Prevention Act being signed into law, the definition of federal hate crime was expanded to include those violent crimes in which the victim is selected due to their sexual orientation; previously federal hate crimes were defined as only those violent crimes where the victim is selected due to their race, color, religion, or national origin.

In , in the case United States v. Windsor , brought by lesbian Edie Windsor and argued by lesbian attorney Roberta Kaplan , the Supreme Court struck down Section 3 of the federal Defense of Marriage Act DOMA , which had denied federal benefits to same-sex couples who were legally married in their states.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission concluded that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of does not allow sexual orientation discrimination in employment because it is a form of sex discrimination.

Smith that in regard to the issuing of birth certificates, no state can treat same-sex couples differently than heterosexual ones; the case was brought by two same-sex female couples.

Bostock v. Clayton County , U. In , the Department of Justice filed an amicus brief in the 2nd U. In , Tammy Baldwin became the first openly lesbian or gay senator in American history.

In Aisha Moodie-Mills became the new president and CEO of the Victory Fund , which made her the first woman, first black woman, first lesbian, and first black lesbian to become the head of a national leading LGBT organization.

On June 11, , Pulse, a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida, was hosting Latin Night, a weekly Saturday-night event drawing a primarily Hispanic crowd.

Lucie, Florida. Mateen called during the attack and pledged allegiance to ISIL. Category:LGBT culture.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Lesbian literature. See also: Second-wave feminism. Main article: Orlando nightclub shootings.

June L. Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Cultures. Garland Publishing. May Retrieved 14 October Fred B. New York University Press.

Retrieved on The Journal of Asthma Research. Archived from the original on Retrieved OutHistory Yes, we've already had one, and here are her love letters".

The Washington Post. New York: Meridian Books. New York: A. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. University of Chicago.

University of California, Los Angeles. Michael University of Illinois Press. Seth 29 May Arcadia Publishing. Seal Press.

Unknown to them at the time was the work decades earlier of a pioneering lesbian researcher, Mildred Berry Berryman. Berryman and her life partner, Ruth Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Archived from the original PDF on 7 November Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 7 November Journal of the History of Sexuality.

Boston, MA: Wadsworth Publishing. Atlas Obscura. Illinois Times. Retrieved February 3, The Amazon of Letters. New York: Putnam. New York Times.

Investigations — Diana. National Coalition Against Censorship. December 1, Archived from the original on November 10, Retrieved January 7, Rimmerman Gay rights, military wrongs: political perspectives on lesbians and gays in the military , Garland Pub.

Internet Archive. Retrieved 30 November Out Magazine. Highsmith: A Romance of the s 1st ed. Cleis Press. Ballantine Books. Here Media Inc.

Retrieved 30 June Gay Today. Glbt History Month; October 14, ; retrieved November 4, Press Release. New York Public Library; retrieved November 4, Stonewall , Penguin Books.

Where witnesses claim one woman who fought her treatment at the hands of the police caused the crowd to become angry, some also remembered several "butch lesbians" had begun to fight back while still in the bar.

At least one was already bleeding when taken out of the bar Carter, David Martin's Press. Craig Rodwell in Duberman, p. University of Chicago Press.

New York: Carroll and Graf. Life So Far: A Memoir. Page Life So Far , op. Love 22 September Feminists Who Changed America, Here Come the Brides!

Da Capo Press. Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. Signs, 5, — The New York Times. Retrieved June 30, The Blade. The Advocate.

The University of Chicago Press. Urge passage of legislation to protect rights of homosexuals". New York Times Abstracts. Retrieved 27 December Bay Area Reporter.

The Terfs. October 12, The dispute between radical feminism and transgender ideology". New Yorker Magazine.

Retrieved 5 August Oxford University Press. Simon and Schuster. Harvard University Press. The Transsexual Empire 2nd ed. Teachers College Press.

The second edition includes a new foreword that describes her anti-trans work after the publication of her thesis project as the first edition in the late 70s.

Sex wars: sexual dissent and political culture. New York: Routledge. Women, class, and the feminist imagination: a socialist-feminist reader.

Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Desiring revolution: second-wave feminism and the rewriting of American sexual thought, to New York: Columbia University Press.

The Sexual liberals and the attack on feminism. New York: Pergamon Press. Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality. Thorsons Publishers.

The Lesbian Heresy. North Melbourne, Vic. Hawkesworth, M. London: Routledge. Collier-Thomas, Bettye My Jewish Learning. Shir Tikvah. Archived from the original on March 26, Editors Janet Baus, Su Friedrich.

Texas Performing Arts Com The San Francisco Chronicle. February 13, Archived from the original on May 21, National Center for Lesbian Rights.

Archived from the original on January 11, The Boston Globe. KOMO News. The Oregonian. State of Oregon et al". Oregon Judicial Department.

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Cuomo seen as getting political boost from gay marriage bill". Google News. Seattle Times. Archived from the original on October 7, Retrieved November 9, Associated Press.

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In many of them special support and advocacy organizations are present. By contrast, countries near the bottom of the index show the lack of aspiration to promote greater inclusion of the LGBT military personnel.

In ancient Greece, the Sacred Band of Thebes was a military unit from BCE which consisted of male lovers who were known for their effectiveness in battle.

However, homosexual behavior has been considered a criminal offense according to civilian and military law in most countries throughout history.

There are various accounts of trials and executions of members of the Knights Templar in the 14th century and British sailors during the Napoleonic wars for homosexuality.

The U. To regulate homosexuality in the U. Many soldiers accused of homosexual behavior were discharged for being "sexual psychopaths", although the number of discharges greatly decreased during wartime efforts.

The rationale for excluding gays and lesbians from serving in the military is often rooted in cultural norms and values and has changed over time.

Originally, it was believed that gays were not physically able to serve effectively. The pervading argument during the 20th century focused more on military effectiveness.

And finally, more recent justifications include the potential for conflict between heterosexual and homosexual service members and possible "heterosexual resentment and hostility.

Many countries have since revised these policies and allow gays and lesbians to openly serve in the military e. Israel in and the UK in There are currently more than 30 countries, including nearly all of the NATO members which allow gays and lesbians to serve and around 10 more countries that don't outwardly prohibit them from serving.

Like sexual orientation, policies regulating the service of transgender military personnel vary greatly by country.

Based on data collected by the Hague Centre for Strategic Studies [20] seventeen countries currently allow transgender people to serve in their military.

While the US military's Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy was rescinded in allowing open service by gay, lesbian, and bisexual service members, transgender people are still barred from entering the US military.

Despite this, studies suggest that the propensity of trans individuals to serve in the US military is as much as twice that as cisgender individuals.

American transgender veterans face institutional hardships, including the provision of medical care while in the armed services and after discharge stemming from their gender identity or expression.

Transgender veterans may also face additional challenges, such as facing a higher rate of homelessness and home foreclosure, higher rates of losing jobs often directly stemming from their trans identity, and high rates of not being hired for specific jobs because of their gender identity.

The armed forces of Israel, the United States and Australia have employed intersex individuals depending on the nature of their conditions, but the guidelines are vague and seldom talked about.

In the US army , six states Texas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma and West Virginia initially refused to comply with Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel's order that gay spouses of National Guard members be given the same federal marriage benefits as heterosexual spouses, forcing couples to travel hours round trip to the nearest federal installation.

Furthermore, some benefits offered on bases, like support services for relatives of deployed service members, could still be blocked.

In legal changes were said to revert to practices to those before Don't Ask, Don't Tell, the National Defense Authorization Act contains language some claimed permitted individuals to continue discriminating against LGB soldiers.

From June 30, to April 11, , transgender personnel in the United States military were allowed to serve in their preferred gender upon completing transition.

From January 1, to April 11, , transgender individuals could enlist in the United States military under the condition of being stable for 18 months in their preferred or biological gender.

On July 26, , President Donald Trump announced on his Twitter page that transgender individuals would no longer be allowed "to serve in any capacity in the U.

Military", effectively reinstating the ban. Further, throughout the US army, transgender people are still suffering from discrimination: they are prohibited from serving openly because of medical regulations that label them as mentally unstable.

Fear of discrimination may prevent military service members to be open about their sexual orientation.

A report stated that in some cases, in Belgium, homosexual personnel have been transferred from their unit if they have been "too open with their sexuality.

Serving openly may make their service less pleasant or impede their careers, even though there were no explicit limitations to serve. Thus service members who acknowledged their homosexuality were "appropriately" circumspect in their behavior while in military situations; i.

Until training is completed and a solid employment is fixed they fear losing respect, authority and privileges, or in worse cases their job in the Danish army.

Commanders said that sexual harassment of women by men poses a far greater threat to unit performance than anything related to sexual orientation.

On the other hand, the Dutch military directly addressed the issue of enduring discrimination, by forming the Homosexuality and Armed Forces Foundation, a trade union that continues to represent gay and lesbian personnel to the ministry of defense, for a more tolerant military culture.

Although homosexuals in the Dutch military rarely experience any explicitly aggressive acts against them, signs of homophobia and cultural insensitivity are still present.

In an inherently violent environment, LGBT people may face violence unique to their community in the course of military service. According to a news article, the Israeli Defense Force does not ask the sexual orientation of its soldiers, however half of the homosexual soldiers who serve in the IDF suffer from violence and homophobia.

LGBT soldiers are often victims of verbal and physical violence and for the most part, commanders ignore the phenomenon. The study focuses on men and women.

The specificity of the violence faced by LGBT people is not considered. In the Australian army, the problem is not known officially; only a few cases of harassment and discrimination involving gays and lesbians have been recorded.

A researcher mentioned that "one would not want to be gay and in the military": Although there has been no major public scandal regarding harassment of gays, this does not mean that such behavior does not occur, but it has been under-studied.

Generally, however, incidents of discrimination or harassment brought to the attention of commanders are handled appropriately, incidents in which peers who had made inappropriate remarks are disciplined by superiors promptly and without reservation.

In the United States, despite policy changes allowing for open LGBQ military service and the provision of some benefits to same-sex military couples, cultures of homophobia and discrimination persist.

Several academics have written on the effects on employees in non-military contexts concealing their sexual orientation in the workplace.

Writers on military psychology have linked this work to the experiences of LGBQ military service personnel, asserting that these studies offer insights into the lives of open LGBQ soldiers and those who conceal their orientation.

Specifically, non-open LGBT persons are found to experience social isolation. A study conducted at the University of Montana found that non-open LGB US veterans face significantly higher rates of depression , posttraumatic stress disorder , and alcohol or other substance abuse than their heterosexual counterparts.

These veterans also reported facing significant challenges serving while concealing their sexual orientation; This study also concludes that Evidence suggests that for LGB service members in the United States, the conditions of service and daily life have improved dramatically following the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

Soldiers who choose to come out experience feelings of liberation, and report that no longer having to hide their orientation allows them to focus on their jobs.

Until recently, many countries banned gays and lesbians from serving openly in the armed forces.

The reasons to enforce this ban included the potential negative impact on unit cohesion and privacy concerns. However, many studies commissioned to examine the effects on the military found that little evidence existed to support the discriminatory policy.

In fact, several studies provide evidence that allowing gays and lesbians to openly serve in the armed forces can result in more positive work related outcomes.

Firstly, discharging trained military personnel for their sexual orientation is costly and results in loss of talent.

The total cost for such discharges in the U. S for violating the Don't Ask Don't Tell policy amounted to more than million dollars.

Although, it is important to note that many gays and lesbians do not disclose their sexual orientation once the ban is repealed.

For instance, the British military reduced its unfilled position gap by more than half after allowing gays to openly serve. The arguments against allowing openly gay servicemen and women in the military abound.

While most research data have all but debunked traditional arguments in favor of policies like Don't Ask, Don't Tell , homosexuality is still perceived by many countries to be incompatible with military service.

A recurrent argument for a ban on homosexuals in the military rests on the assumption that, in the face of potentially homosexual members of their unit, prospective recruits would shy away from military service.

In a line of work that regularly demands that personnel be in close living quarters, allowing openly homosexual servicemen is argued to flout a fundamental tenet of military service: ensuring that soldiers remain undistracted from their mission.

If gay men are allowed to shower with their fellow male soldiers, so goes the argument, this would, in effect, violate the "unique conditions" of military life by putting sexually compatible partners in close proximity, with potentially adverse effects on retention and morale of troops.

Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Policies and rights regarding military service of LGBT people.

See also: Same-sex unions and military policy. Years List Category. Human rights Minority rights Discrimination Freedom Index.

Sexual orientation. Social attitudes. Academic fields and discourse. Lesbian feminism Lavender linguistics Queer studies Queer theory Transfeminism.

Main article: Transgender people and military service. Main article: Intersex people and military service.

Further information: Sexual orientation and military service by country. Archived from the original on 4 January Retrieved 26 August The Santiago Times.

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